All pieces start on the lathe. I turn the outer diameter to 1/8 inch in thickness and the inner diameter of the piece is 1 inch thick.
I carve by hand with a high-speed dental drill. I pierce the wood where it's 1/8 inch thick and carve relief where it's thicker.
I stipple the wood with a wire-tipped wood burner. This creates both color and texture adding depth to each piece.
I gild metal leaf on pieces and apply a mild acid to create a patina. I use gold, silver, and copper metal leaf.